TOR-M1 tracked self-propelled Air Defence Missile System (ADMS)
Rosoboronexport - Russia
The Tor-M1 air defence missile system is designed to protect ground troops and installations from attacks of air attack assets, especially precision-guided weapons, as well as fixed- and rotary-wing aircraft, cruise
missiles and remotely piloted vehicles.
missiles and remotely piloted vehicles.
- Provides circular scanning of air in the assigned sector in elevation, acquisition and identification of air targets, evaluation of air situation, automatic prioritization of firing at the most threatening targets.
- Sends target designations of the selected targets to the guidance radar, performs targets fine search, lock-on and auto-tracking, defines the killing zone entry moment, launches missiles, automatically aims missiles to targets according to radio commands.
- Combat vehicle (CV) 9A331MK can perform search, acquisition and identification of air targets on the move or at halt, transition to targets tracking and missile launching is performed at a short halt.
- Combat vehicle (CV) 9A331MK crew totals 3 persons, including a driver.
Max target detection range, km 25
Number of simultaneously detected
and identified targets 48
Elevation of detected targets, deg 0 - 32 or 32 - 64
Number of simultaneously tracked target paths 10
Target engagement envelope, km:
range 1.0 – 12
altitude 0.01 – 6.0
Number of simultaneously engaged targets up to 2
Target speed, m/s up to 700
Number of CV-mounted SAMs 8
SAM warhead weight, kg 14.8
Reaction time after target detection, sec 5 - 8
Max road speed, km/h 65
CV weight, t 37
(with 2 hours of operation), km 500
Composition combat facilities
- Combat vehicle (CV) 9A331-1
- 9M331 surface-to-air missile.
Surface-to-air missile module is a uniform construction consisting of transportation and launching container with surface-to-air guided missiles.
The SAM module is intended for storage, transportation and launching od surface-to-air guided missiles.
Composition technical facilities
- 9T244 transporteur/loader (TL)
- 9T245 transporting vehicle
- 9V887M maintenance workstation (battery MV)
- 9V887-1M maintenance workstation (regiment MV)
- 9F399-1M1 group SPTA set vehicle
- 9F678 self-contained training simulator for CV operators
- 9F116 rigging equipment set
- MTO-AG3M1 maintenance shop
Additionally together with the system a control facility can be delivered
- 9S737M mobile unified battery command post (UBCP)
The 9A331-1 combat vehicle (CV)
The 9A331-1 combat vehicle (CV) is capable of defeating the following types of air threats (with reflection surface of 0.1m² and beyond):
- air-to-ground guided missiles, glided aerial bombs
- cruise missiles of all modes of basing
- Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs)
- fixed and rotary wing aircraft of tactical aviation
The combat vehicle (CV) ensures day/night aerial targets detection at halt and on move as well as SAMs launch towards the selected targets at short halt in all weather conditions.
The CV reactio time from target detection till missile launch is 5 - 10 seconds at halt.
All the radar, optical, computer components and missiles are based upon a light armored cross-country chassis to provide combat vehicle (CV) high effectiveness.
Combat vehicle comprises:
- target acquisition radar (TAR) with antenna stabilization system
- identification friend-or-foe (IFF) system
- guidance radar (GR) for guidance and tracking of targets and SAMs
- autonomus lock-on channel (ALC) od SAMs
- television-optical tracker (TVOT) for automatic angular-coordinates tracking of targets
- high speed multiplex digital computer
- air situation indication and display system, system test equipment
- control facilities
- documenting equipment
- telecode and command radio communication system
- navigation, survey and orientation equipment
- antenna-launching module and automatic launching equipment
- power supply source with electric generator drive from gas turbine or chassis fraction motor
- auxiliary equipment
Basic performance characteristics of the 9A331-1 combat vehicle (CV)
Number of simultaneously detected target: 48
Detection range: 25 km
Number of target channels: 2
Killing zone boundaries (range): 1.5 km to 12 km
Killing zone boundaries (altitude): 0.01 km to 6 km
Killing zone boundaries (course parameter): +/- 6 km
Elevation angle of detection: 0 - 32° (32 - 64°)
Target speed: 0 - 700 m/s
Overload of target to be defeated while maneuvering: 10 g
Reaction time (from target detection till missile launch): 5 - 10 s
Number of missiles carried by combat vehicle (CV): 8
Kill probability: 0.5 - 0.99
Maximum speed: 65 km/h
Weight: 37 t
Fuel endurance (at 2-hour equipment operation): 500 km
The 9M331 surface-to-air missile (SAM)
The TOR-M1 is equipped with the 9M331 (SAM) providing effective defence against advanced and perpective aerial threats flying at nap-of-the-earth, low and medium altitudes.
Solid-propellant one-stage 9M331 missile is of an aerodynamic CANARD configuration. Fragmentation warhead with active fuze provides high lethality.
Eight ready-to-fire missiles are located in the antenna launching device (ALD) in the two 4-place transportation and launching containers.
Container and surface-to-air missile form the missile module 9M334.
Each SAM is fitted with with a catapult enabling its vertical launch. The 9M331 SAM sustainer engine maintains speed close to average for a long period.
For safety reasons, SAM can be automatically or at the operator's command destroyed in case of normal flight failure.
Basic characteristics of the 9M331 surface-to-air missile (SAM)
Dimensions and weight of the 9M334 missile module
- Weight: 937 kg
- Dimensions: 3005x1223x444 mm
- Weight: 168 kg
- Length: 2898 mm
- Maximum diameter: 235 mm
Maximum speed: 850 m/s
Life-cycle of the 9M334 missile module: minimum 10 years
Control facilities ADM battery
Combat vehicle, being a minimum unit, is capable to perform combat operations from target detection till its engagement independently. It is capable to accomplish combat mission autonomously or as part of ADM battery, controlled from battery command post. Battery contains 4 TOR-M1 ADM combat vehicles (CV).
The ADM battery is a tactical subunit capable to fulfill complex combat missions. The 9S737M battery command post (BCP) has full control over combat vehicles. Telecode and voice communication channels ensure data and commands exchange between BCP and subordinate vehicles. BCP distributes targets among combat vehicles thereby excluding an unauthorized fire concentration at one target.
The standard ADM battery comprises:
- CV 9A331-1: 4 units
- BCP 9S737M: 1 unit
- TL 9T244: 2 units
- TV 9T245: 2 units
- MV 9V887: 1 unit
- Group SPTA set vehicle 9F339-1M1: 1 unit
- RES 9F116: 1 unit
- 9M334 missile modules: each of 4 CVs carries 2 missiles, each 9T244 carries 2 missiles, each 9T245 carries 4 missile
Maintenance, logistics and training
The 9T244 transporter/loader (TL)
It carries one ammunition set of missiles (two 9M334 missile modules). It is fitted with a hydraulic crane with manipulator and provides reloading (removal of an empty container and installation of a new one with missiles) in maximum 18 minutes. The crew of the 9T244 consists of 3 men. The transporter/loader is mounted on the URAL-4320 truck. Weight of the system with SAMs is 15055 kg. The cruising range is 600 km. It can be ready for operation in up to 10 minutes.
The 9T245 transporting vehicle
The 9T245 transporting vehicle is designed for transportation and long-term storage of 4 9M334 missile modules and loading the combat vehicle (CV) with the aid of the 9T244 transporter/loader. It is mounted on the URAL-4320 truck. Weight of the loaded vehicle is maximum 14000 kg. The cruising range is 600 km.
The 9V887M, 9V887-1M maintenance vehicles
The 9V887M maintenance vehicle is intended for maintenance and repair of 4 combat vehicles by means of group SPTA (SPTA-2A) set and operational test of automatic launching equipment.
The 9V887-1M maintenance vehicle carries out the repair of 16 combat vehicles by means of group SPTA (SPTA-2B) and analysis of combat performance with the use of equipment decoding the documenting equipment data. Maintenance vehicles are mounted on URAL-4320 chassis with K2.4320 van body. Maintenance vehicles power supply station is based on a trailer.
Weight of the equipped maintenance vehicle with trailer is maximum 13450 kg + 3400 kg. The cruising range is 600 km.
The 9F339-1M1 group SPTA set vehicle
The 9F339-1M1 group SPTA set vehicle transports and stores group SPTA set for repair of the 9A331-1 combat vehicles (CV) of the ADM battery. The SPTA set vehicle is mounted on URAL-4320 chassis (with drop side body and canvas) and 2-PN-4M (SM3-7826) trailer. The wooden boxes with the group SPTA set inside are placed in metallic containers installed in the truck and trailer bodies. Weight of the group SPTA set vehicle with a trailer is 13240 kg + 6320 kg. The cruising range is 600 km.
The 9F116 rigging equipment set (RES)
RES is designed
- to handle and pack missile modules
- to handle the package of 4 modules and pack 2 to 4 modules
- to transport module packages within the depot mimits and load them on aircraft
- to store and transport the rigging set equipment
The 9F678 self-contained training simulator
The 9F678 self-contained training simulator for operators of the TOR-M1 ADM CVs provides training of CV crews skills to control the system under conditions close to real combat operations and keep it in constant combat readiness. The training simulator allows imitation of saturation attacks, paired and single targets, antiradiation missile attacks, active and passive noise jamming, clutter.It is composed of CV equipment simulator and air situation simulator.
In the training simulator the air situation is input in the form of a program (set of standard training air situations) or manually in interactive mode.It is possible to change air picture during training that provides duel mode of the battle imitation. The training simulator also imitates interface with BCP. Automated evaluation of 9A331-1 CV operator's performance is available.The simulator has an autonomous power supply station mounted on a trailer.
The MTO-AG3M1 maintenance shop
MTO-AG3M1 provides maintenance and routine repair of the URAL, KRAZ, KAMAZ, ZIL trucks, 5955 tracked vehicles and their modifications in the field.
The MTO-AG3M1 equipment allows the following works:
- hoisting and transportation
- electric welding
- charging and maintenance of accumulators
- sheet metal works
- carpenter's finish
- assembling and mechanical works
- repair and maintenance of units
- test, repair and adjustement of electric equipment
- maintenance and repair of tires
- lubricating and filling
Asian Defence News