T-72 modernized Main Battle Tank (MBT)
UralVagonzavod - Russia
In the upgraded T-72AG tank the original 780/840 hp engine with a less than optimum performance under hot conditions is replaced by a new 6TD-series diesel engine with associated support elements that has been developed for T-80UD/Oplot MBTs.
Two different diesel engine options are available - the 6TD-1 developing 1,000 hp and the 6TD-2 developing 1,200 hp. Both engines offer real advantages in performance in desert conditions at ambient temperatures of up to 55 degrees above zero, as they have a number of enhancements for operation in high ambient temperatures.
The engines in question are two-stroke multi-fuel liquid-cooled diesels with straight-flow scavenging, with horizontally-placed cylinders and opposed pistons.
Both the 6TD-2 and 6TD-1 will run on various fuels including diesel fuel, petrol, kerosene, jet engine fuel (or their mixture in any proportion).
The power is taken off both sides of the crankshaft. The engine is centered and fixed with the help of three supports: two cylindrical supports co-axial with the power take-off shaft and located at the engine ends and one front support located on the engine bottom surface. This method of engine fixing requires neither adjustment nor centering operations when installing the engine in the power pack compartment.
The compact lay-out of the engine and specific features of its design make it possible to place it transversally in the power pack compartment and co-axially with the gear-boxes. This considerably simplifies the tank transmission and results in very small overall dimensions of the power pack (3.1 cubic metres).
The engine is mounded with the help of three supports:
This method of installation of the 6TD-1 (6TD-2) engine requires neither adjustment nor centering, which are required when installing the original V46-6 engine.
The main specific features of the power packs fitted with 6TD-1 and 6TD-2 engines consists in the ejection-type cooling system, the high-efficiency engine inlet air cleaning system, the special air intake device enabling the tank to cross water obstacles to a water depth of 1.8 m without preparation, as well as the air-tightness of the power pack compartment.
The tank has a liquid-type closed forced ejection-type cooling system. The cooling system ejector operates by using the energy of the engine exhaust gas. The absence of cooling fans and fan drive reducer decreases considerably the cooling system weight, as well as ensuring a high level of reliability and self-control.
The maximum admissible coolant temperature is up to 130°C, and this together with an ejection-type cooling system enables the tank to operate at ambient air temperature of up to +55°C without any degradation of performance.
The high-efficiency cyclone/cassette air cleaner ensures air purification of dust by 99.8 %, which makes it possible to operate the tank without the need to maintain the air cleaning cassettes under desert conditions for 35 hours of engine operation or for a 1,000 km of run. In case of use of nuclear or chemical weapons, it is possible to operate the air cleaner without the cassettes to prevent them from being filled with radioactive dust or toxic agents.
If compared with the original gear-boxes of the T-72 MBT, the new gear-boxes are enhanced to enable them to operate in interaction with a more powerful 1,200 engine. The enhancement is achieved due to introduction of additional disks in the friction clutches, reinforcement of the reducer part of the epicycle mechanisms and improvement of lubrication of the working components. Besides, the final drives are designed so that they ensure additional reverse movement gears; in so doing, the maximum reverse speed is up to 34 km/h. The tank pivoting capability is also provided. The maximum forward speed is up to 70 km/h.
The modernisation of the power pack in question can be carried out at workshops fitted with lifting equipment with a capacity of up to 15 t, metal cutting equipment and welding equipment (up to 600 A).
|Power-to-weight ratio, hp/t||21.7|
|Average speed on dirt road, km/h||35-45|
|Max speed on highway, km/h||65|
|Main gunner’s vision device||Multichannel, combined with optical channel, thermal channel, laser range finder and missile laser control channel; with two-axis independent stabilization; parallel sight TPDK-1|
|Gunner’s night vision device||Thermal channel of main vision device|
|Identification range at night, m||3000 ... 3500|
|Ballistic computer||Electronic, digital, with set of sending units|
|Commander’s vision device||Day and night sighting and vision system PNK-4|
|Identification range, m|
|Weapon stabilizer||Two-axis, with electromechanical power traverse and compact electrohydraulic power elevation|
|Automatic target tracker||option|
|Gun, type, bore size||2A46M, smoothbore, 125 mm, enhances grouping of fire and effective fire range|
|Automatic loader||stowage and loading of artillery rounds|
|Guided weapon system||type 9K119, fire with missile by gunner and commander from halts and on the move in the daytime and at night at a range up to 5000 m|
|12.7- mm antiaircraft machine gun mount||independent, enclosed, with remote electromechanical power traverse|
|Additional protection of tank front against ADPS/HEAT||universal modular ERA|
|Smoke grenade launching system||automated screening system "Shtora-1"|
|Max time to screen, s||3|
|Fire fighting equipment||3EC13-1, automatic, fast-acting|
|NBC protection system||automatic, collective; system PKUZ-1A|
|Electromagnetic protection||Option, protection against mines with magnetometric fuses|
|Engine: type, model, gross horsepower, hp. (kW)||diesel V-92S2, 1000 (736)|
|Gear shifting||automatic, with possible manual gear shifting|
|Track type||with stamped track link units, with rubber-bushed parallel pin-jointed cog meshing adapted to accommodate rubber pads|
|Navigation system||satellite navigation and interaction system, gyro direction indicator GPK-59|
|Communication facilities||radio set R-168-25UE-2, interphone system R-168 ABSK-B|
|Driver’s night vision device||TBN-5|
|Visibility range, m||180|
The specific features of the power pack compartment with 6TD-1 (6TD-2) engine are as follows:
- ejection-type liquid cooling system which enables the tank to be operated under conditions of high ambient air temperature (up to +55ºC) without any loss of performance;
- highly efficient cassette/cyclone air filter which ensures air filtration with efficiency of 99.8%. The air cleaner enables the tank to be operated under dusty conditions for 35 working hours (1000 km of run) without necessity to maintain the air cleaner;
- air-tightness of the power pack compartment and availability of a special air intake device which enables the tank to cross water obstacles to a water dept of 1.8 m without preparation.The transmission installed in the tank provides increased reverse speed and pivoting movement (on-the sport turning).Modernisation of the power pack compartment can be carried out at small enterprises in the shops equipped with lifting equipment with capacity of up to 15 t, metal-cutting equipment (plasma cutting or gas cutting) and welding equipment (up to 600 A).Delivery set
- 6TD-1 (6TD-2) engine with engine systems;
- electrical equipment, control drives, etc.
To enhance the T-72AG tactical mobility, the tank can be fitted with a satellite navigation system which ensures the following:
The navigation system aerial is installed on the turret near the commander's hatch. The remainder of the system components is installed inside the tank.
- determining the tank's coordinates by using two satellite systems, viz. GPS NAVSTAR (USA) and GLONASS (Russia). The readiness time is within 5 minutes. The mean square error in determining coordinates is within 20 m and does not depend on the distance covered;
- generating, transmitting, receiving and displaying the text information. The information is introduced with the help of a keyboard and is transmitted through a digital radio channel by using the standard radio set. The radio coverage in cross country is up to 20 km. The received information is displayed on the screen;
- storing and processing the pre-selected routes. It is possible to pre-select up to 10 routes, each containing up to 50 check-points;
- providing the driver with data about the required turning angle to ensure movement towards the next route check-point or the destination point;
- collecting information about the friendly force location and displaying this information on the screen in the digital form or in the form of a mnemonic diagram.